It has always been impossible to deal with crop production without securing irrigation. Even ancient Egyptians and Nubians practiced their own irrigation systems- using the flooding of the river Nil and waterwheel-like device called a sakia. Irrigation systems today are modern solutions, which with fertilization make the most important factor for successfully plant growth. The primary purpose of irrigation is to return water lost by evaporation and wringing of soil through root and leaf back. The loss of water depends on rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind, and solar radiation, and the largest deficit of moisture occurs in the summer months.
Proper irrigation increases yield up to 50%. Depending on growing culture, different irrigation systems are applied, like systems with mini sprinklers, or systems with sprinkling and dripping, which are also the most widespread today. Drip irrigation system, or drop by drop is also called micro-irrigation, which means most rational consumption and an even distribution of water and energy.
To be effective, irrigating should provide:
• uniform distribution of water for each type of plant
• possibility of night irrigation, in order to prevent , or reduce the thermal shock of plants
• optimal use of water and electricity, provided by the automatic control unit and the abillity to disconnect the system in case of rain
• time and manpower savings, while giving plants a constant and ideal care
• maximum system durabilityin every situation, even in extremely hot and dry summers
Successful irrigating does not consists only of setting up the pipes and sprinklers. In order to achieve the desired results, before setting up irrigation system you should know what are the most important factors: irrigation time and frequency, devices working pressure, water flow and distance between sprinklers ie droppers. In practice, the mode of irrigation is most commonly used according to the critical periods in relation to water. Plants consume the most water from the end of flowering until the end of the intensive increase of fruits. Critical stages of development are blossoming, growth of leaves and shoots, and the formation of embryos and increase of fruits.
Depending on the type, irrigation systems operate at a working pressure of 1.5 to 4 bar, while the water flow of individual droppers is 2 to 10 l / h. Droppers should be placed near the plant, and the real distance depends on the density of the canopy and soil type. In vegetables, flowers and fruit seedlings they are much denser placed (30-50cm), and in permanent fruit crops they are less frequent (50-100cm). Also space between droppers are always smaller on light soils than on heavy soils.
Irrigation system can be used to fertilize your crops at the same time. It is a good way to save your time and what is more important each plant receives equal amount of nutrients. Elements essential for plant growth and development are entered directly into the root zone system. Beside fertilizers, with fertirigation can be added plant protection products like insecticides and fungicides.
Whether you grow fruits, vegetables or grains, in continental or coastal areas, irrigation is necessary to obtain the planned yield. With proper application time and the amount of water used, you can significantly improve your production using irrigation.
Agrivi farm management software helps you track water usage for every farm and analyze how much did you irrigate per week, month and year. Advanced weather monitoring lets you see rainfall for each field so you can optimize your irrigation and do only when it is needed.
You want to improve your farm production? What are you waiting – start using Agrivi now.