Precision farming is a relatively new term and many farmers still don’t know what it really is. The idea of precision farming has evolved from the need to reduce unnecessary environmental pollution by chemical products, and active substances used in agricultural production. The rapid rise in prices of raw materials in agriculture has expanded range of reasons to think about precision farming.
Advanced farmers in developed agricultural countries are already regularly applying some of technological possibilities of precision farming. Thus, for example, today in France, 10% of farmers use some of the precision farming system.
Precision farming or precision management is the concept of agricultural production, based on observation and selective processing or treatment of small areas within a field. It is based on the application of information technology, satellite navigation, a sophisticated work monitoring and possibilities to adapt agricultural machines and high-quality analytical samples.
Using sensors can determine whether the crops grow and develop with maximum efficiency in concrete conditions, and can be precisely define the reasons of reduced efficiency. The collected information is used to create maps that show variations of the observed certain elements such as yield, soil fertility status, state of weed infestation, disease development, etc..key terms are selectivity, precision and accuracy.
Precision farming aims to get closer to each plant and create optimal conditions for its development and growth. At the same time achieves the effect of reducing the negative environmental impacts to the excessive application of chemicals to stimulate the growth or suppression of harmful organisms. The final effect is more economical production and significant saving of raw materials, labor of humans and machines and energy saving.
Precision farming and tillage systems
Precision farming can be applied to almost all tillage systems from conventional to minimum or rational. Rational tillage and precision farming are closely linked due to same usage of modern sensors and devices. Rational tillage is tillage, which takes the best of conventional tillage and by applying of new technology it optimizes the processing costs while achieving optimal conditions for soil preparation.
Possibilities of application of this technology are enormous. It’s already used in tillage, planting, fertilization, protection and cultivation, and every day is increasingly widespread.
By further simplifications of using technology selective work in small units within the plot and advanced analytical decision-making system and reducing the cost of equipment will certainly came to a significant expansion of application of precision farming and precision management whereby the productivity and quality of products will grow while reducing environmental burdens.